Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Bangladesh, Myanmar dan Indonesia (Pelajaran atas Perdamaian Antar Pemeluk Beda Keyakinan)

Peristiwa yang menciderai perdamaian beda pemeluk agama kembali terjadi yaitu di Bangladesh yang dipicu oleh tindakan yang dinilai sebagai penghinaan terhadap pemeluk agama lain. Kerusuhan yang memporak-porandakan bangunan tempat ibadah terjadi setelah pemeluk agama lain marah karena menilai adanya penghinaan terhadap agama mereka. Sebelumnya terjadi di Indonesia dan Myanmar yang peristiwa kerusuhan dan penindasan terhadap pemeluk agama lain menjadi perhatian badan perserikatan bangsa-bangsa (PBB).

Pelajaran yang dapat diambil dari berbagai kekerasan yang mengatasnamakan agama adalah bahwa mayoritas memiliki potensi yang maha-dasyat menjadi kekuatan penghancur bagi peradaban. Mayoritas pemeluk agama, apapun agamanya dapat dengan mudah menjadi biang kekerasan terhadap sesama manusia dan pemeluk agama lain. Pembangunan perdamaian perlu menjadi prioritas dari negara yang memiliki mayoritas pemeluk agama. Membangun perdamaian dilakukan dengan membangun kesadaran bahwa masyarakat tidak terdiri dari kekuatan tunggal (kesamaan pemeluk agama), melainkan berdampingan dengan (pemeluk) agama lain.

Kedasaran hidup berdampingan dengan (pemeluk) agama lain mendorong untuk memperoleh kesepahaman untuk mengedepankan harmoni atau keselarasan. Harmoni adalah wujud dari perdamaian hidup dalam keanekaragaman. Tantangan situasi harmoni ketika terjadi potensi disharmoni yang dipicu oleh ketegangan dari situasi yang diawali dengan kecurigaan. Untuk itu dalam membangun perdamaian, termasuk membangun sistem peringatan dini (early warning system) ketika terjadi situasi saling curiga diantara pemeluk agama. Sistem peringatan dini ini menjadi ‘tanda bahaya’ mengenai situasi yang akan memicu konflik horizontal dengan penggunaan kekerasan.

Pembangunan perdamaian (peace building) menjadi penting tidak hanya bagi mayoritas, melainkan minoritas juga berperan dalam menyalakan ‘alarm’ tanda bahaya yang dapat memicu konflik dan kekerasan. Dialog untuk membangun sistem peringatan dini sosial penting untuk dilakukan. Dari dialog tersebut akan memuat saling tukar gagasan untuk menciptakan mekanisme agar ketegangan yang terjadi tidak meningkat menjadi kecurigaan yang menjadi bahan untuk melakukan konflik dan kekerasan. Dengan terbangunnya sistem peringatan dini sosial diharapkan konflik yang berujung pada tindak kekerasan terhadap pemeluk agama lain dapat dicegah.

Tulisan ini dapat dibaca juga di Kompasiana

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